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METHODOLOGY TO CREATE ANIMATIONS USING OPEN SOURCE REPOSITORY
  Author           : Sneha Deorukhkar and Pooja Bhawar  
  Image Editing : Amit Vengurlekar  
     
  Appending | Modification of the scene  | Animation | Advance Animation | Rendering | Uploading  
     
  Process Flow  
 
 
     
 
Appending
 

Downloading: Make a new folder and rename it as your experiment’s name. In this folder, download the default file for Lab setup which has a base(table), light setup & Camera named Lab_basic_setup_cycles.blend from the OSCAR website (after the file gets uploaded there) http://oscar.iitb.ac.in/blenderrepository.do . In the same folder, download blend files for the apparatus required for your experiments from the link mentioned above as per the category.

 
 

Appending Objects: In this file, append all the required apparatus with the following Open the Lab_basic_setup_cycles.blend file with double click Go to File and then Append Browse for the folder you just created Select the file from which model has to be appended Select Object-Select Model(s) Click on the Link/Append from library button The object you append in the scene gets appended in the center of the 3D view by default. You can move the object as per your convenience.

 
                              1.2 Append                                         1.3 Select Folder
 
                           1.4 Select Blend file                                1.5 Select Object Folder
 
                           1.6 Click on Append               1.7 Required apparatus for Ohm's law experiment
     
  Modification of the scene 
  Arrangement of Apparatus:
  Now arrange these as per the Circuit diagram For example: Ohm’s law
 
                       Circuit Diagram (Ohm's Law)                   
 

You can move your object using following steps: Select the object which you want to move. Three colored arrows, represent the 3D Transform manipulator. This manipulator helps to move the object in a particular axis. Red color represents X axis, green represents Y axis, and blue represents Z axis. To move, rotate or scale the object in a particular direction, use shortcuts press G, R or S, respectively with X, Y or Z, as a specific axis.

 
 
Arrangement of Apparatus: (Ohm's Law)
 
               Arrangement of the Apparatus (Ohm's Law)                   
 

Lighting: Rearrange if the lights are not proper according to your setup. Change the position of the (plane) emission according to your object direction. You can also duplicate emission by pressing Shift+D and place it as per your requirements. Resize the appended apparatus as per a specific proportion.

 
                           2.4 Basic Setup                                            2.5 Shift D (Duplication)
 

You can increase or decrease emission strength according to your requirement. To make changes in environment light, you can change Ambient Occlusion factor value in World properties.

 
                           2.6 Emission Strength                                            2.7 Ambient Occulsion
 

Preview Render: Set the Camera for the animation. Take preview of this setup to check the light setup with 50 samples. Rearrange if the lights are not proper with some more previews. Take a render for the setup of the Apparatus (as the preview output and render output is not same always). Save the file as Exp_name_Apparatus_setup.blend

 
               Preview Render                  
     
  Animation 
 

Object Animation: You can animate your object adding key frames on timeline. Select your object which you want to animate. Red color represents X axis, green represents Y axis, and blue represents Z axis. Press G to move, R to rotate and S to scale the object. To move, rotate or scale the object in a particular direction by using following shortcut press G, R or S and after that press X, Y or Z. First decide the time limit of your animation. To add key frames select your object which you want animate press I and add key frame on first frame in location, rotation or in scale. Then move the timeline and move, rotate or scale your object and again press I and again add key frame. Repeat the steps and add key frames according to your time duration. You can move your key frames using DopeSheet.

 
            3.1 I- Add key frame               3.3 Dope Sheet                                            3.2 Timeline
 

Rigging: Rigging is use to control objects mesh. This technique is used by creating or using a series of "bones".Each bone in the skeleton is responsible for deforming and animating a part of the object.In this animation each part is connected with each other so you can use rigging for this kind of animations. For example: Ropes, chains, wire, other gear used to support or for equipment you can use rigging. Armature objects used for rigging. The Armature Object Armatures are like articulated skeletons, that allow you to pose and deform the geometry that surrounds it. An armature is made of a series of bones connected to each other via parenting or constraints. Editing Armatures Armatures are comprised of Bones. Editing an Armature in Edit Mode allows you to manipulate the bones in their default rest position.Posing Armatures Contrary to Edit Mode, Pose mode isn't a obligatory mode where you can't do anything else. You can be in Pose mode and still select another object. When you are done building your armature, you can go into Pose Mode to add constraints and start creating actions. Animation After rigging is done you can move bones in pose mode and add key frames on timeline.

 
                      3.4 Bones                                                          3.5 Use of bones
 

Shape Keys: Shape keys store different shapes of a same object (mesh, curve, surface or lattice). In other 3D applications they are called “morph targets”, “blend shapes”, or even “vertex keys” in older versions of Blender. They are the only way to directly animate the shape of your object. Relative shape keys have (by default) one key (the first one) as basis, and all others can be used to blend this basis with their own shapes (optionally limiting their effects to a given vertex group). Each of these “relative” shapes’ influence can be animated with its own Ipo curve, exactly as you would animate the influence of constraints. Select your object in Object mode. Go to F9 Editing window. Find and select the "Shapes" panel. Press the "Add Shape key" button. This adds a key called "Basis" and this stores the "basic" mesh in its undeformed state. Make sure the "Relative" button is pressed (should be default). Press the "Add Shape key" button again. It now says "Key 1" and you have a slider and some other settings. Go into Edit Mode, grab a vertex and move it. Exit Edit Mode. The mesh returns to normal but you have just added a real Shape key and Blender has stored it.Repeat step for as many different shapes as you like. You can rename the keys to whatever you want. Normally you create each new shape by first selecting the "Basis" key but if you select an existing key from the list and immediately press "Add Shape Key" then enter Edit Mode, the mesh will already be deformed. This is useful for making similar but unique keys. After adding shape keys, Open “DopeSheet” window, select the “ShapeKey Editor” in mode. Right click on the key value and “Insert Keyframe” then move the time line and change the value of shape key at the current frame and add the keys for animation.

 
               3.6 DopeSheet                  
 
               3.7 Example : Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution                  
 

Camera Animation: First decide the time limit of your experiment. In basic setup camera is already attached with the locater. Locater is used for the object, Because of the locater you can rotate the camera around the object. You can place the locater on the object which you want to focus. In general, you can follow these steps: Select empty press S or select the Translate manipulator from the 3D view Using the 3D transform manipulator, move the cube in X Y and Z directions Move the empty and place it in the center of the object.Select the Camera press S to grab R to rotate Then you press X,Y or Z to move or rotate the object in particular direction.Move the camera using shortcut go to the time line Press I to insert key frame on the time line. You can add key frame in a location rotation and According to the timing add the key frames and animate the camera.

 
               3.8 Camera with Locater                  
 
               3.9 Example : Camera Animation(key framing)                  
 
                             Full view of the burner                    Zoomed view of burner with book-shelf
                                                                                             moving in the left
 
                             Zoomed view of the burner                Zoomed view of burner with book-shelf
                                                                                             moving in the right
  Advance Animation 
 

Particles: Particles are lots of items emitted from mesh objects, typically in the thousands. Each particle can be a point of light or a mesh, and be joined or dynamic. They may react to many different influences and forces, and have the notion of a lifespan. Dynamic particles can represent fire, smoke, mist, and other things such as dust or magic spells. Static particles form strands and can represent hair, grass and bristles. In general, you can follow these steps: Create the base mesh which will emit the particles. This mesh is not rendered by default, but the base material for the mesh is used to color the particles. Since a mesh can carry multiple materials, each particle system may have its own material. Create one or more Particle Systems to emit from the mesh. Many times, multiple particle systems interact or merge with each other to achieve the overall desired effect.Tailor each Particle System’s settings to achieve the desired effect. Animate the base mesh and other particle meshes involved in the scene.Define and shape the path and flow of the particles. For example: Distillation Column (Bubbles)

 
                                                                                             4.1 Particles (Bubbles)
 

Fluid Simulation: The bounding box of another object will be used to define a box-shaped region to simulate the fluid in (the so called “simulation domain”). The global simulation parameters (such as viscosity and gravity) can be set for this domain object. Using the BAKE button, the geometry and settings are exported to the simulator and the fluid simulation is performed, generating a surface mesh together with a preview for each animation frame, and saving them to hard disk. Then the appropriate fluid surface for the current frame is loaded from disk and displayed or rendered. In general, you can follow these steps: Set the simulation domain (the portion of the scene where the fluid will flow), Set the fluid source(s), and specify its material, viscosity, and initial velocity, Eventually, set other objects to control the volume of the fluid (inlets and outlets), Eventually, set other objects related to the fluid, like: obstacles, particles floating on the fluid, fluid control, to shape part of the fluid in the desired form, Eventually, animate the fluid properties, Bake the simulation (eventually, revise as necessary and bake repeatedly).

 
                 For example: Distillation Column (Fluid)                 
  Rendering 
 

Rendering settings: Once Camera angles are set, stress on minute details between these steps and continue with the Animation Save this final file as Exp_name_Animation.blend Render the whole Animation to obtain a video file for that In general, you can follow these steps: Go into render setup Go into Dimension -> Resolution You change the resolution percentage according to your requirements. Go into Integrator -> Samples. Change the Render and Preview samples according to your requirements (Basic Render Settings – Render: 200 and Preview: 50) You can Increase the value of Transparency, Bounce and Light Paths for better output. Image is used to render a single frame of the active camera view. Press F12. The active camera view is rendered as a single frame image. Left click Create new directory. Type OUTPUT and press enter. Left click Output to open the folder. Left click Accept. Now all our Render files will be saved in the Output Folder in My Documents. Below the Output Folder bar is the Image format menu. Here we can choose our Output format for our Render images and movie files. Below PNG are the three color modes used in Blender. You can chose according to your requirements.

 
               5.1 Rendering Setting                  
 

Rendering output: Animation is used to render an entire range of frames or an image sequence and create a movie file. Esc to stop the render progress. Left click Animation. The entire frame range will getting rendered.

 
               5.1 Rendered Output                  
  Uploading
 

Packing External data: Each .blend file contains a database. This database contains all scenes, objects, meshes, textures, etc. that are in the file. A file can contain multiple scenes and each scene can contain multiple objects. Objects can contain multiple materials which can contain many textures. It is also possible to create links between different objects. Pack into .blend file: Blender has the ability to encapsulate (incorporate) various kinds of data within the .blend file that is normally saved outside of the .blend file. For example, an image texture that is an external .jpg file can be put “inside” the .blend file via File → External Data → Pack into .blend file. When the .blend file is saved, a copy of that .jpg file is put inside the .blend file. The .blend file can then be copied or emailed anywhere, and the image texture moves with it.

 
               6.1 Pack into .blend file                  
  Upload the experiment with blend file on OSCAR website
     
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